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February 17, 2013

Latest Posts from Economist's View

Latest Posts from Economist's View

Posted: 17 Feb 2013 12:03 AM PST
Posted: 16 Feb 2013 03:53 PM PST
Joe Stiglitz:
Equal Opportunity, Our National Myth, by Joe Stiglitz, Commentary, NY Times: President Obama's second Inaugural Address used soaring language to reaffirm America's commitment to the dream of equality of opportunity...
The gap between aspiration and reality could hardly be wider. Today, the United States has less equality of opportunity than almost any other advanced industrial country. Study after study has exposed the myth that America is a land of opportunity. This is especially tragic:... there is near-universal consensus that inequality of opportunity is indefensible. ...
How do we explain this? Some of it has to do with persistent discrimination. ... Of course, there are other forces at play, some of which start even before birth. Children in affluent families get more exposure to reading and less exposure to environmental hazards. Their families can afford enriching experiences like music lessons and summer camp. They get better nutrition and health care, which enhance their learning, directly and indirectly. ...
In some cases it seems as if policy has actually been designed to reduce opportunity: government support for many state schools has been steadily gutted..., especially in the last few years. Meanwhile, students are crushed by giant student loan debts that are almost impossible to discharge, even in bankruptcy. This is happening at the same time that a college education is more important than ever for getting a good job. ...
And increasingly even a college degree isn't enough; one needs either a graduate degree or a series of (often unpaid) internships. Those at the top have the connections and social capital to get those opportunities. Those in the middle and bottom don't. The point is that no one makes it on his or her own. And those at the top get more help from their families than do those lower down on the ladder. Government should help to level the playing field.
Americans are coming to realize that their cherished narrative of social and economic mobility is a myth. ... Without substantial policy changes, our self-image, and the image we project to the world, will diminish...
Posted: 16 Feb 2013 02:00 PM PST
Do the wealthy move away when taxes are increased?:
The Myth of the Rich Who Flee From Taxes, by Mikhail Klimentyev, NYT: ... It's an article of faith among low-tax advocates that income tax increases aimed at the rich simply drive them away..., and on its face, it seems to make sense. But it's not the case. It turns out that a large majority of people move for far more compelling reasons, like jobs, the cost of housing, family ties or a warmer climate. At least three recent academic studies have demonstrated that the number of people who move for tax reasons is negligible, even among the wealthy. ...
Of course, some people do move for tax reasons, especially wealthy retirees, athletes and other celebrities without strong ties to high-tax locations, like jobs and families. ... But there aren't many people like that. "Tax-induced flight is rare," Professor Tannenwald said. ...
Yet the tax flight myth remains surprisingly persistent, fanned by media coverage of celebrities, who are among those most likely to have the means and motive to choose a home based on tax considerations. "You can always find an anecdote." Mr. Shure said. "Many people want this to be true as a way to discourage tax increases. ..."
Another zombie.
Posted: 16 Feb 2013 12:05 PM PST
What is the basis for progressive taxation? One principle of taxation (there are others) is "equal marginal sacrifice," i.e. that the last dollar in taxes paid by the rich and the poor should cause the same amount of pain. This is from Miles Corak:
... Alfred Marshall in his Principles of Economics, the most used economics textbook from the 1890s to the 1920s, not just in Cambridge England where he taught, but in the whole English-speaking world, wrote that:
A rich man in doubt whether to spend a shilling on a single cigar, is weighing against one another smaller pleasures than a poor man, who is doubting whether to spend a shilling on a supply of tobacco that will last him for a month. The clerk with £100 a-year will walk to business in a much heavier rain than the clerk with £300 a-year; for the cost of a ride by tram or omnibus measures a greater benefit to the poorer man than to the richer. If the poorer man spends the money, he will suffer more from the want of it afterwards than the richer would. The benefit that is measured in the poorer man's mind by the cost is greater than that measured by it in the richer man's mind.
In other words, losing a dollar when you already have many causes less pain than when you have only a few. Marshall's argument is the basis for both the substance and the method of a good deal of basic micro-economics: it explains the "law of demand"—why lower prices induce people to buy more—but also why tax rates should rise with income.
Economists judge the functioning of the tax system in a number of ways: certainly the system should not be administratively cumbersome, and it should, to the greatest degree possible, not cause individuals in a well-functioning market to change their behavior. It should also treat equals equally. Finally, the tax system should raise more revenue where it will cause the least pain. And this last concern, when coupled with Marshall's reasoning, suggests that tax rates should be progressive: as income increases, the greater the fraction that should be paid in taxes. ...
Posted: 16 Feb 2013 10:50 AM PST
Kevin Drum has a question:
Has the Mainstream Media Finally Had Enough?, by Kevin Drum: I'm curious. It seems to me that something has happened over the past three months: the nonpartisan media has finally started to internalize the idea that the modern Republican Party has gone off the rails. Their leaders can't control their backbenchers. They throw pointless temper tantrums about everything President Obama proposes. They have no serious ideas of their own aside from wanting to keep taxes low on the rich. They're serially obsessed with a few hobby horses — Fast & Furious! Obamacare! Benghazi! — that no one else cares about. Their fundraising is controlled by scam artists. They're rudderless and consumed with infighting. They're demographically doomed. ...
The framing of even straight new reports feels just a little bit jaded, as if veteran reporters just can't bring themselves to pretend one more time that climate change is a hoax, Benghazi is a scandal, and federal spending is spiraling out of control. It's getting harder and harder to pretend that the same old shrieking over the same old issues is really newsworthy.
Question: Am I just imagining this? Or has there really been a small but noticeable shift in the tone of recent reporting?
Paul Krugman says:
On both sides of the Atlantic, the austerians seem to be freaking out. And that has to be good news, an indication that they realize, at some level, that they're losing the debate. ... Unfortunately, these people have already done immense damage, and still retain the power to do a lot more.
The last sentence is my answer to Kevin Drum's question. Even if there is a lull, I expect it to be temporary and I wonder if they've learned anything along the way.

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